From Thor, he inherited the quick temper, physical strength and merits of a giant-slayer.  Around the 12th century, folk traditions and iconography of Olaf absorbed elements of the gods Thor and Freyr from Norse mythology. Olaf II. In pagan times, Scandinavian kings derived their right to rule from their claims of descent from the Norse god Odin, or in the case of the kings of the Swedes at Old Uppsala, from Freyr. His popularity spread rapidly; churches and shrines were constructed in his honour in England, Sweden, and Rome. Many believe Olaf introduced Christian law into Norway in 1024, based upon the Kuli stone. role of Olaf II. St. Olaf was widely popular throughout Scandinavia. Olav II Haraldsson (oma eluajal tuntud ... Elulugu. Deceased", "St. Olaf Church, Patron of Norway Catholic Church", "St. Olave's Anglican Church – Beauty and Tradition in Toronto's Bloor West Village", A History of Norway and The Miracles of the Blessed Olafr, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Olaf_II_of_Norway&oldid=994740500, Pre-Reformation saints of the Lutheran liturgical calendar, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from March 2017, Articles with Norwegian-language sources (no), Articles with German-language sources (de), Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing explicitly cited English-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Articles needing additional references from July 2012, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, St. Olave's Anglican Church, Toronto, ON, Canada, The primary school and GAA club in Balally, Dublin, Ireland, both named for St. Olaf, The oldest picture of St. Olaf is painted on a column in the, St Olaf St a secondary street in Lerwick, Shetland, Ekrem, Inger; Lars Boje Mortensen; Karen Skovgaard-Petersen (2000), Langslet, Lars Roar; Ødegård, Knut (2011), This page was last edited on 17 December 2020, at 08:45. n. Among the bishops Olaf is known to have brought with him from England was Grimkell (Latin: Grimcillus). 995. He was the Archbishop of Nidaros in Norway from 1452 to 1458. Olav is the modern equivalent in Norwegian, formerly often spelt Olaf. During his reign, the nation of Norway experienced a rare extended period of peace. The Dominican Monastery was secularized in 1802 and bulldozed in 1955. The texts used for the liturgical celebration of St. Olaf during most of the Middle Ages were probably compiled or written by Eystein Erlendsson, the second Archbishop of Nidaros (1161–1189). Olaf resolved his conflict with the Swedish king Olaf Skötkonung by 1019 and joined forces with the king’s son Anund Jakob when Canute, king of England and Denmark, threatened to conquer Norway. Thus the kings of Norway promoted the cult of St. Olaf, the kings of Sweden the cult of St. Erik and the kings of Denmark the cult of Saint Canute, just as in England the Norman and Plantagenet kings promoted the cult of St. Edward the Confessor at Westminster Abbey, their coronation church.. Several churches in England were dedicated to him (often as St Olave); the name was presumably popular with Scandinavian immigrants. Olaf's local canonization ( The first people honored as saints were the martyrs. Sigurd was born between 952 and 957, in Vestfold, Norway. Olav (Haraldsson) den Hellige (ur.995, zm. As a teenager, he went to the Baltics, Denmark, and England, and wintered with Duke Richard II of Normandy on his way home. An office, or prayer service, for Olaf is found in the so-called Leofric collectar (c. 1050), which Bishop Leofric of Exeter bequeathed in his last will and testament to Exeter Cathedral. He ordered his ships to depart despite a riding storm. Harald Grenske died when Åsta was pregnant with Olaf. He was posthumously given the title of Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae ( Norway's Eternal King ) and canonized in Nidaros ( now Trondheim) by Bishop Grimkell one year after his death the the Battle of Stiklstad .  Like Freyr, he became associated with fertility, which led to his adoption as a patron saint by farmers, fishermen, sailors and merchants of the Hanseatic League, who turned to him for good yield and protection. This may have been in 1014, restoring London and the English throne to Æthelred the Unready and removing Cnut.. Corrections? The icon of the Madonna Nicopeia, presently in St. Mark's Basilica in Venice, which is believed to have been traditionally carried into combat by the Byzantine military forces, is believed to have been kept in this chapel in times of peace. Olaf II Haraldsson, also called Saint Olaf, Norwegian Hellig-Olav, (born c. 995—died July 29, 1030, Stiklestad, Norway; feast day July 29), the first effective king of all Norway and the country’s patron saint, who achieved a 12-year respite from Danish domination and extensively increased the acceptance of Christianity. [a] The cult of Olaf unified the country and consolidated the christianisation of Norway. His sainthood encouraged the widespread adoption of Christianity by Scandinavia's Vikings/Norsemen. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Its altarpiece contains a painting of the saint, shown as a martyr king defeating a dragon, representing victory over his pagan past. Pope Alexander III confirmed Olaf's local canonisation in 1164, making him a universally recognised saint of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1019 Olaf married Astrid Olofsdotter, King Olof's illegitimate daughter and the half-sister of his former fiancée. Olaf Haraldsson and Olaf Tryggvason are both traditionally regarded as the driving forces behind Norway's final conversion to Christianity. The Norwegian synoptic histories also mention Olaf. When the Danish king Sweyn (Svein) I gained the advantage in England, Olaf went to Spain and also to France, where he was baptized at Rouen (1013). A notable one is The Passion and the Miracles of the Blessed Olafr.. The chapel was restored in 1980 and reinaugurated by Bishop John Willem Gran, bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Oslo. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Heimskringla (c. 1225), by Snorri Sturluson, largely bases its account of Olaf on the earlier Fagrskinna. He was killed in battle, and regarded by Norwegians as the great champion of national independence and a martyr. When he died in 1464, he was buried in front of the shrine's altar. He is also venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Church.. Normans were somewhat familiar with the culture of the people they were to convert and in some cases may have been able to understand the language. Thus St. Olaf was also the last saint venerated by both the Western and Eastern churches before the Great Schism.  The codification of Christianity as the legal religion of Norway was attributed to Olaf, and his legal arrangements for the Church of Norway came to stand so high in the Norwegian people's and clergy's eyes that when Pope Gregory VII attempted to make clerical celibacy binding on the priests of Western Europe in 1074–75, Norwegians largely ignored it, since there was no mention of clerical celibacy in Olaf's legal code for their church.  But the shrine did not last. , Olaf Haraldsson had the given name Óláfr in Old Norse (etymology: Anu- "forefather", -laibaR —"heir"). , Recently the pilgrimage route to Nidaros Cathedral, the site of St. Olaf's tomb, has been reinstated. In Olaf II Haraldsson …and Danish army in the Battle of Stiklestad (1030), one of the most celebrated battles in ancient Norse history. During his lifetime he was known as Olaf 'the fat' or 'the stout' (Ólafr digri; Modern Norwegian Olaf digre). He is also recognized as the patron saint of the Faroe Islands.. , Popular tradition also made marks in the ecclesiastical material. Only the Rokokoportal ("Rococo Portal"), built in 1754, remains to mark the spot. On the way home he wintered with Duke Richard II of Normandy. St Olave Hart Street in the City of London is the burial place of Samuel Pepys and his wife. Olaf annihilated the petty kings of the South, subdued the aristocracy, asserted his suzerainty in the Orkney Islands, and conducted a successful raid on Denmark. The exact position of Saint Olaf's grave in Nidaros has been unknown since 1568, due to the effects of the Lutheran iconoclasm in 1536–37. Olaf himself is portrayed in later sources as a saintly miracle-working figure to help support this quick view of conversion for Norway, but the historical Olaf did not act this way, as seen especially in the skaldic verses attributed to him. Olaf sailed to the southern coast of Finland sometime in 1008. In his book The Conversion of Scandinavia, Anders Winroth argues that there was a "long process of assimilation, in which the Scandinavians adopted, one by one and over time, individual Christian practices. Olaf II Haraldsson (c. 995 – 29 July 1030), later known as Saint Olaf (and traditionally as St. Olave), was King of Norway from 1015 to 1028. Olaf attempted to reconquer Norway in 1030 with help from Anund Jakob but was defeated by a superior Norwegian peasant and Danish army in the Battle of Stiklestad (1030), one of the most celebrated battles in ancient Norse history. , "St. Olaf" redirects here. St Olave's Church, York, is referred to in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for 1055 as the place of burial of its founder, Earl Siward. It has been suggested that it could be in Uusimaa.  He made peace with King Olof Skötkonung of Sweden through Þorgnýr the Lawspeaker, and was for some time engaged to Olof's daughter, Princess Ingegerd, though without Olof's approval.  But large stone crosses and other Christian symbols suggest that at least Norway's coastal areas were deeply influenced by Christianity long before Olaf's time; with one exception, all of Norway's rulers since Håkon the Good (c. 920–961) were Christians, as was Olaf's main opponent, Cnut the Great. This calls for an explanation of the status he gained after his death. Owing to Olaf's later status as Norway's patron saint, and to his importance in later medieval historiography and in Norwegian folklore, it is difficult to assess the historical Olaf's character. He was probably the only one of the missionary bishops left in the country at the time of Olaf's death, and he stood behind the translation and beatification of Olaf on 3 August 1031. The Oldest Saga of St. Olaf (c. 1200) is important to scholars for its constant use of skaldic verses, many of which are attributed to Olaf himself. His name in Icelandic is Ólafur, in Danish Oluf, in Swedish Olof, the Norse-Gaels called him Amlaíb and in Waterford it is Olave. Before leaving, Olaf was baptised in Rouen in the pre-Romanesque Notre-Dame Cathedral by Richard's brother Robert the Dane, archbishop of Normandy. Olaf II Haraldsson (Old Norse: Óláfr Haraldsson) (995 – July 29, 1030) was king of Norway from 1015 to 1028, (known during his lifetime as "the Big" (Óláfr Digre) and after his canonization as Saint Olaf or Olaus). After the death of his father, Olaf shared the kingdom with his brother Magnus II (Magnus 2 Haraldsson) who had become king the previous year. Norsemen had conquered this region in 881. Olaf II Haraldsson of Norway JOHN JANARO The "conversion of the barbarians" was gradual as Christianity became inculturated among whole populations, and wove an unprecedented fabric of unity among hitherto perpetually warring pagan clans. Other names, such as Oláfr hinn helgi, Olavus rex, and Olaf (as used in English) are used interchangeably (see the Heimskringla of Snorri Sturluson). A widely used account of Olaf's life is found in Heimskringla from c. 1225. Early depictions of Olaf portray him as clean-shaven, but after 1200 he appears with a red beard, which may have been absorbed from Thor. king of Norway byname Olaf the Quiet , Norwegian Olav Kyrre died 1093, Norway king of Norway (1066–93) who guided the nation through one of its most prosperous periods, maintaining an extended peace rare in medieval Norwegian history.… Antatt relikvieskrin skisse.jpg 700 × 665; 119 KB. Olaf II `the Holy King' HARALDSSON. Olaf was driven into exile in Kievan Rus. It seems that, like many Scandinavian kings, Olaf used his Christianity to gain more power for the monarchy and centralise control in Norway. Updates?  He was also called Olaf 'The Lawbreaker' for his many brutal ways of converting the Norwegian populace. Olaf II Haraldsson, also called Saint Olaf, Norwegian Hellig-Olav, (born c. 995—died July 29, 1030, Stiklestad, Norway; feast day July 29), the first effective king of all Norway and the country’s patron saint, who achieved a 12-year respite from Danish domination and extensively increased the acceptance of Christianity. Many Christian institutions with Scandinavian links as well as Norway's Order of St. Olav are named after him.  In 1016 at the Battle of Nesjar he defeated Earl Sweyn, one of the earls of Lade and hitherto the de facto ruler of Norway. This church is believed to have been near the church of Hagia Irene in Constantinople. Three factors are important: the later myth surrounding his role in the Christianisation of Norway, the various dynastic relationships among the ruling families, and the need for legitimisation in a later period.. [b] The nine miracles reported in Glælognskviða form the core of the catalogue of miracles in this office. Olaf III Haraldsson synonyms, Olaf III Haraldsson pronunciation, Olaf III Haraldsson translation, English dictionary definition of Olaf III Haraldsson. Also, Olaf and Grimkell most likely did not introduce new ecclesiastical laws to Norway; these were ascribed to Olaf at a later date. The Osilians, taken by surprise, had at first agreed to Olaf's demands, but then gathered an army during the negotiations and attacked the Norwegians. S91 Along the Sacred Path ℗ 2019 Rockshots Records Released on: 2019-03-22 Auto-generated by YouTube. , Finally, many hagiographic sources describe St. Olaf, but these focus mostly on miracles attributed to him and cannot be used to accurately recreate his life. Canute forced Olaf to flee to Russia (1028), where the Norwegian ruler took refuge with his Swedish wife’s relatives. [a] Grimkell later became the first bishop of Sigtuna in Sweden. Olaf swiftly became Norway's patron saint; Bishop Grimkell performed his canonisation only a year after his death. Other names, such as Oláfr hinn helgi, Olavus rex, and Olaf are used interchangeably (see the Heimskringla of Snorri Sturluson). , It is said that Olaf participated alongside fellow Viking Thorkell the Tall in the Siege of Canterbury in 1011.. Ta kasvas üles Ringerikes Kagu-Norras. But Olaf II died before the East-West Schism and a strict Roman Rite was not well-established in Scandinavia at the time. She later married Sigurd Syr, with whom she had other children, including Harald Hardrada, who later reigned as king of Norway. Sigrid Undset noted that Olaf was baptised in Rouen, the capital of Normandy, and suggested that Olaf may have used priests of Norman descent for his missionaries. Olav was baptized in 1030, at baptism place. These include the Ágrip af Nóregskonungasögum (c. 1190), the Historia Norwegiae (c. 1160–1175) and a Latin text, Historia de Antiquitate Regum Norwagiensium by Theodoric the Monk (c. 1177–1188). Olaf II Haraldssön II (sometimes Olav), King of Norway from 1016-29, called during his lifetime "the Fat" or "the Stout", and afterwards known as St. Olaf, was born in 995, the year in which Olaf Tryggvessön … This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Olaf-II-Haraldsson, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Biography of St. Olaf Haraldson. , Many texts have information about Olaf Haraldsson. Returning to Norway in 1015, Olaf conquered territory that had previously been held by Denmark, Sweden, and the Norwegian earl Haakon of Lade; by 1016 he had consolidated his rule in all Norway. Olaf (or Olav) II, Saint (Olaf Haraldsson), A.D. 995–1030, king of Norway 1016–29: patron saint of Norway. Olaf II Haraldsson, also called Saint Olaf, Norwegian Hellig-Olav, (born c. 995—died July 29, 1030, Stiklestad, Norway; feast day July 29), the first effective king of all Norway and the country’s patron saint, who achieved a 12-year respite from Danish domination and extensively increased the … His religious code of 1024 is considered to represent Norway’s first national legislation. Saint Olaf ou Olav Haraldson ou Olaf II de Norvège dit le Gros ou le Saint, roi de Norvège de 1015 à 1028, est né vers 995 et mort le 29 juillet 1030. Especially during the period of Romantic Nationalism, Olaf was a symbol of Norwegian independence and pride. Saint; King of NORWAY. Olav is the modern equivalent in Norwegian, formerly often spelt Olaf. By this time he was also being called Norway's Eternal King. Define Olaf III Haraldsson. But Olaf's success was short-lived. Despite these events they survived. Numerous churches in Norway, Sweden, and Iceland were dedicated to him. Åsta was born circa 970, in Upplands, Vestfold, Norway. After the death of his father, Olaf shared the kingdom with his brother Magnus II (Magnus 2 Haraldsson) who had become king the previous year. Norský či Olaf II.Haraldsson (995, Ringerike – 29. července 1030), byl norský král v letech 1015 až 1028.Během jeho života se mu přezdívalo Tlustý a po jeho kanonizaci začal být znám jako Svatý Olaf. Numerous Danish churches were dedicated to Olaf during his reign, and the sagas give glimpses of the young king's efforts to promote the cult of his deceased father. It was originally a gift presented to Pope Leo XIII in 1893 for the golden jubilee of his ordination as a bishop by Norwegian nobleman and papal chamberlain Baron Wilhelm Wedel-Jarlsberg. In Norway today, he is commonly referred to as Olav den hellige (Bokmål; Olaf the Holy) or Heilag-Olav (Nynorsk; the Holy Olaf) in honour of his sainthood. The basilica of Sant'Ambrogio e Carlo al Corso in Rome has a Chapel of St Olav. The Finns pursued them and made the same progress on land as Olaf and his men made on water. Olaf Haraldsson had the given name Óláfr in Old Norse. Olaf saw it as his calling to unite Norway into one kingdom, as Harald Fairhair had largely succeeded in doing. Olaf’s popularity, his church work, and the aura of legend that surrounded his death, which was supposedly accompanied by miracles, led to his canonization in 1031. PM Churchill's 26-Great Grandfather. Only after Norway was made a metropolitan province with its own archbishop in 1153—making the Norwegian church, on the one hand, more independent of its king, but on the other hand, more directly responsible to the Pope—did canon law gain a greater prominence in the life and jurisdiction of the Norwegian church. Olaf brought with him Grimkell, who is usually credited with helping Olaf create episcopal sees and further organising the Norwegian church. Olaf II Haraldsson ( 995-July 29 1030 ),a.k.a, Saint Olaf, was King of Norway from 1015-28 . But the relics of St. Olaf are no longer in the Nidaros Cathedral. Ta ristiti Rouenis, kus ta oleks pidanud kohtama benetiktiinlikku suundumust. Olaf has traditionally been seen as leading the Christianisation of Norway, but most scholars of the period now believe that Olaf had little to do with the process. The Norwegian synoptic histories also mention Olaf. King Olaf Haraldsson of Norway had the given name Óláfr in Old Norse.  One is the killing and throwing onto a mountain of a sea serpent still visible on the cliffside. , In the Faroe Islands, the day of St. Olaf's death is celebrated as Ólavsøka, a nation-wide holiday. The Passio a miracule beati Olavi, the official record of Olaf's miracles, contains an episode where Olaf helps a man escape from the huldrefolk, the "hidden people" of Norwegian folklore. Olaf II Haraldsson (995 – 29 July 1030), later known as St. Olaf (and traditionally as St. Olave), was King of Norway from 1015 to 1028. He was posthumously given the title Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae Eternal King of Norway) and canonised in Nidaros (Trondheim) by Bishop Grimkell, one year after his death in the Battle of Stiklestad on 29 July 1030. "St. Olaf and the Skalds." Although its facts are dubious, the saga recounts Olaf's deeds as follows: About 1008, Olaf landed on the Estonian island of Saaremaa (Osilia). , Icelanders also wrote extensively about Olaf and there are several Icelandic sagas about him, including Fagrskinna (c. 1220) and Morkinskinna (c. 1225–1235). The son of the lord Harald Grenske and a descendant of the Norwegian ruler Harald I Fairhair, Olaf was reared as a pagan and became a Viking warrior in the Baltic region. 29 lipca 1030) – król Norwegii w latach 1016–1028, święty Kościoła katolickiego.. Wprowadził w kraju chrześcijaństwo (między innymi stworzył w nim biskupstwa, zakazał spożywania końskiego mięsa), zniósł niewolnictwo, ograniczył władzę arystokracji i wprowadził lokalne ustawodawstwo. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Numerous royal, grand ducal and ducal lines are descended from Ordulf and Wulfhild, including members of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Stream ad-free or purchase CD's and MP3s now on Amazon.com. Media in category "Olaf II of Norway" The following 5 files are in this category, out of 5 total. But Grimkell was only a member of Olaf's household and no permanent sees were created until c. 1100. This was before the time of the formal canonization process now in use. It also led to the naming of St Olave's Grammar School, which was established in 1571 and was in Tooley Street until 1968, when it moved to Orpington, Kent. , In Germany, there used to be a shrine of St. Olaf in Koblenz. For various reasons, most importantly the death of King Cnut the Great in 1035 but perhaps also a certain discontent among Norwegian nobles with Danish rule in the years after Olaf's death in 1030, Olaf's illegitimate son with the concubine Alvhild, Magnus the Good, assumed power in Norway, and eventually also in Denmark. Olaf attempted to reconquer Norway in 1030 with help from Anund Jakob but was defeated by a superior Norwegian peasant and Danish army in the Battle of Stiklestad (1030), one of the most celebrated battles in ancient Norse history. This became typical of Scandinavian monarchies. Olaf Haraldsson was born circa 995, at birth place, to Harald Gudrødsson Grenske and Åsta "Astrid" Grenske (born Gudbrandsdottir). Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Eysteinn Erlendsson is commonly believed to have written. Harald Grenske died when Åsta Gudbrandsdatter was pregnant with Olaf.  The journey resulted in the Battle at Herdaler, where Olaf and his men were ambushed in the woods. Son of Harald Grenske, a petty king in Vestfold, Norway, he was posthumously given the title Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae (English: Eternal/Perpetual King of Norway) and canonised at Nidaros (Trondheim) by Bishop Grimkell, one year after his death in the Battle of Stiklestad on 29 July 1030. During his lifetime he was known as Olaf 'the fat' or 'the stout' or simply as Olaf 'the big' (Ólafr digri; Modern Norwegian Olav digre). A Pilgrim's Office in Oslo gives advice to pilgrims, and a Pilgrim Centre in Trondheim, under the aegis of the Cathedral, awards certificates to pilgrims when they complete their journeys. At this time, local bishops and their people recognised and proclaimed a person a saint, and a formal canonisation procedure through the papal curia was not customary; in Olaf's case, this did not happen until 1888. Harald was born Before 950, in Grenland, Vestfold fylke, Norge. , For centuries, Olaf figured in folk traditions as a slayer of trolls and giants, and as a protector against malicious forces.   He stayed for some time in the Swedish province of Nerike, where, according to local legend, he baptised many locals. , The saga of Olav Haraldsson and the legend of Olaf the Saint became central to a national identity. " Winroth does not claim that Olaf was not Christian, but argues that we cannot think of any Scandinavians as fully converting as portrayed in the later hagiographies or sagas. rsta was born circa 970, in Vestfold, Norway. In Norway today, he is commonly called Olav den hellige (Bokmål; Olaf the Holy) or Heilage-Olav (Nynorsk; the Holy Olaf) in honour of his sainthood. Olav II de Heilige Haraldson was born in 995, at birth place, to Sigurd Syr av Norge and rsta Sigurdsson (born Gudbrandsdotter). Olaf II Haraldsson, later known as St. Olaf (and traditionally as St. Olav), was King of Norway from 1015 to 1028. Olaf nevertheless won the battle. Saint Olaf is symbolised by the axe in Norway's coat of arms and Olsok (29 July) is still his day of celebration. What seems clear is that Olaf made efforts to establish a church organization on a broader scale than before, among other things by importing bishops from England, Normandy and Germany, and that he tried to enforce Christianity in the inland areas, which had the least communication with the rest of Europe, and which economically were more strongly based on agriculture, so that the inclination to hold on to the former fertility cult was stronger than in the more diversified and expansive western parts of Norway. Olaf II's Old Norse name is Ólafr Haraldsson. Grimketel initiated the beatification of Olaf on 3 August 1031. The exact location of the battle is uncertain and the Finnish equivalent of Herdaler is unknown. Olaf II (Haraldsson) Święty, norw. Died Olaf tried to force Christianity on them, but they revolted in 1029, and drove him first to Sweden and then to Kiev (in modern Russia). Narodil se v roce, kdy se Olaf Tryggvason vrátil do Norska a ujal se vlády. U.S. President [WASHINGTON] 's 22-Great Grandfather. In 1152/3, Nidaros was separated from Lund as the archbishopric of Nidaros. Born. Entry for 'Olaf ii Haraldsson' - One of 8 Bible encyclopedias freely available, this resource contained over 40 million words in nearly 40,000 articles written by 1,500 respected authors The oldest is the Glælognskviða or "Sea-Calm Poem", composed by Þórarinn loftunga, an Icelander. Writing around 1070, Adam of Bremen mentions pilgrimage to St. Olaf's shrine in Nidaros, but this is the only firm trace we have of a cult of St. Olaf in Norway before the mid-12th century. He founded the town of Borg, later known as Sarpsborg, by the waterfall Sarpsfossen in Østfold county. It was here he converted to Christianity and was baptized at the Notre Dame Cathedral. Lindow, John. This is generally accepted to be the earliest datable church foundation dedicated to Olaf and is further evidence of a cult of St. Olaf in the early 1050s in England. He became an equally important saint of the Eastern Orthodox Church (feast day 29 July) and one of the last famous saints before the Great Schism. Within a few years he had won more power than any of his predecessors on the throne had enjoyed. In: DuBois, Thomas A., ed. The union produced a daughter, Wulfhild, who married Ordulf, Duke of Saxony in 1042. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Olaf was born in 995, the son of Åsta Gudbrandsdatter and Harald Grenske, great-great-grandchild of Harald Fairhair, the first king of Norway. Many texts have information about Olaf Haraldsson. He was posthumously given the title Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae (English: Eternal/Perpetual King of Norway) and canonised at Nidaros by Bishop Grimkell, one year after his death in the Battle of Stiklestad on 29 July 1030. For the video game character, see. Grimkell was later appointed bishop in the diocese of Selsey in southeastern England. When King Magnus died during 1069, Olaf became the sole ruler of Norway. Eysteinn Erlendsson, Archbishop of Nidaros, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Martyr-King Olaf of Norway – A Holy Orthodox Saint of Norway", "St. Olaf, Patron Saint of Norway", St. Olaf Catholic Church, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 'Fact or folklore: the Viking attack on London Bridge', "Bishop John Willem Nicolaysen Gran, O.C.S.O.
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